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LEARN CHINESE: CHINESE GRAMMAR

Chinese Sentences

1. Constituent Structure of Sentences - 句子的成分

1). Subject - 主语
eg. 是个初中生.
eg. 正月十五是元宵节.

2). Predicate - 谓语
eg. 我们下午书店.
eg. 春天来了.

3). Object - 宾语
eg. 妈妈在打电话.
eg. 你打扫卫生吧.

4). Attribute - 定语
eg. 今天的饭太丰盛啦!
eg. 这是我的朋友.

5). Adverbial modifier - 状语
eg. 他到底来不来?
eg. 在这个领域, 他是专家.

6). Complement - 补语 - a kind of verb modifier
eg. 我做完了作业.
eg. 一个老大爷走了出来.

2. Sentence Type - 句子的种类

1). Based on the mood, a sentence can be a declarative sentence, an interrogative sentence, an imperative sentence or an interjectional sentence.

a. Declarative Ssentence - 陈述句
eg. 明天是除夕.
eg. 现在停电了.

b. Interrogative Sentence - 疑问句
eg. 今天是星期几?
eg. 你去吗?

c. Imperative Sentence - 祈使句
eg. 快点!
eg. 请安静!

d. Interjectional Sentence - 感叹句
eg. 这个广场好大啊!
eg. 这幅画真漂亮!

2). Based on the structure, a sentence can be a simple sentence or a complex sentence. A simple sentence can be a predication sentence or a non-predication sentence.

a. Simple Sentence - 单句. A simple sentence can be a predication sentence or a non-predication sentence.

a). Predication Sentence - 主谓句

我看过这部电影. - verbid predication sentence 动词性谓语句

今天情人节. - nominall predication sentence 名词性谓语句

这个苹果可真够大的. - adjectival predication sentence 形容词性谓语句

她心肠软. - subject-predication sentence 主谓谓语句

b). Non-Predication Sentence - 非主谓句

禁止吸烟! - verbid non-predication sentence 动词性非谓语句

好! - adjectival non-predication sentence 形容词性非谓语句

多壮丽的山河! - nominall non-predication sentence 名词性非谓语句

b. Complex Sentence - 复句. The complex sentence is made up of more than one simple sentences, each of which can ether be a predication sentence or a non-predication sentence.

 

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