1. What is Compound
Words occur together based on certain grammatical rules and meaning make compounds (词组 or 短语), such as '阳光灿烂' and '好极了'.
2. Compound Structure
According to the types of the words which make a compoun, a compound can be a combination of full words or full words and empty words.
1). Compounds formed of full words
This kinds of compounds can be categoried according to the relationship between these words, their types and their order.
a. Subject-Predication - 主谓短语.
e.g. 生活美好 今天星期三 他中等身材
b. Verb-Object - 动宾短语.
e.g. 盖房子 热爱祖国 去学校 阅读小说
c. Modification - 偏正短语.
e.g. 遥远的地方 祖国大地 大力支持 独立思考
d. Complement - 中补短语.
e.g. 考虑周到 差得多 拿出来 做不完
e. Coordination - 联合短语.
e.g. 科学技术 酸甜苦辣 细致而周到 你、我、他
f. Apposition - 同位短语. The two parts of the compound mean the same thing.
e.g. 我们大家 你们几位 首都北京 绘画这种艺术
g. Measure-Word Compound - 量词短语, formed of numerals or demonstrative pronouns and measure words.
e.g. 一斤 五次 四公里 那堆 这片
h.Orientation Compound - 方位短语, which shows the position, time or certain area.
e.g. 两年前 他们之间 广场东边 感情上
2). Compounds formed of full words and empty words
a. Propersition Compound - 介词短语, formed of propersitions attached to nouns or nominal phrases.
e.g. 关于这个问题 往北 由于这个原因
b. 'De' Compound - '的'字短语, formed of '的' attached to nominal, verbid or adjectival words.
e.g. 学校的 冰凉的 自己的
c. 'Suo' Compound - '所'字短语, formed of '所' plus a verb to make a nominal phrase.
e.g. 所想 所认识 所关心
d. Metaphorical Compound - 比况短语. This is a adjectival phrase formed of certain particle (似的、一样、etc) attached to nominal or verbid words.
e.g. 母亲般的 飞似的 (像)老虎一样
3. Compound Type
Based on the grammatical funtions, compounds can be categoried as nominall compounds (名词性短语), verbid compounds (动词性短语), adjectival compounds (形容词性短语) or adverbial compounds (副词性短语), which is mainly determined by their head words (中心词).
1. nominall compound - 名词性短语, which includes all compounds which use nouns as head words, such as subject-predication compounds, modification compounds, measure-word compounds, coordination compounds, apposition compounds, 'De' and 'Suo' compounds etc.
e.g. 好客的主人祖国大地 三吨
2. verbid compound - 动词性短语, includes all compounds which use verbs as head words, such as subject-predication compounds, verb-object compounds, complement compounds, coordination compounds, modification compounds etc.
e.g. 干得漂亮 学习德语
3. adjectival compound - 形容词性短语, includes all compounds which use adjectives as head words, such as modification compounds, complement compounds etc.
e.g. 聪明可爱 非常便宜 特别高
4. adverbial compound - 副词性短语, includes all compounds which use adverbs as head words, usually work as adverbial modifier in sentences, such as propersition compounds.
Verbid compounds and adjectival compounds usually work as predicate parts in sentences, so they are also called predicative compounds (谓词性短语)
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